Pregnancy Outside of Marriage Islam teaches that sexual intercourse should only take place between a married man and woman. Interruption of the menstrual period Swollen belly Enlarged and tender breastschanges in the nipples, and possibly milk production Feeling of fetal movements Weight gain These symptoms can last for just a few weeks, for nine months, or even for several years.
They will develop many of the same symptoms as their pregnant partners, including weight gainnauseaand backache. Abortion Most Muslims do not believe abortion is permissible unless the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest, or if the life of the mother is in danger, according to the BBC.
In rare cases, a woman or even a man believes she is pregnant, only to find out that her symptoms were caused not by pregnancy, but by something else entirely.
Only recently have doctors begun to understand the psychological and physical issues that are at the root of pseudocyesis.
Muslims believe that carrying, and then raising, a child is one of the greatest gifts Allah can bestow upon a woman. Having a false pregnancy is not the same as claiming to be pregnant for a benefit for example, to profit financiallyor having delusions of pregnancy such as in patients with schizophrenia.
Indian Journal of Psychiatry, However, because Islam teaches that sexual relations should only be practiced between a married man and woman, contraception is not encouraged as a means of preventing pregnancy outside of marriage.
In a recent review of 14 studies testing theory-based contraceptive behavior interventions, none were found to use the HBM. Methods Primary articles on the HBM framework generally and its constructs were obtained from an electronic database search and used to provide an overview of the model.
Symptoms of False Pregnancy Women with pseudocyesis have many of the same symptoms as those who are actually pregnant, including: Continued Tests for False Pregnancy To determine whether a woman is experiencing a false pregnancy, the doctor will usually evaluate her symptoms, perform a pelvic exam and abdominal ultrasound -- the same tests used to feel and visualize the unborn baby during a normal pregnancy.
Birth Rites Muslim birth rites are tied to traditions recorded in hadiths the recorded sayings of the Prophetand not specifically the Quran. Muslim boys are also circumcised on the seventh day. Some Muslims also believe the termination of a pregnancy is legitimate if the fetus has severe health problems that would cause great suffering during his or her life.
Doctors need to gently break the news, and provide psychological support, including therapy, to help the patient with pseudocyesis recover from her disappointment.
Articles considered for inclusion in the integrated review were primary research reports or editorials applying the HBM to family planning, and more specifically contraceptive behavior research. Some men experience a related phenomenon known as couvade, or sympathetic pregnancy.
The purpose of this review was to examine the Health Belief Model HBM as a comprehensive, well-tested social-cognitive framework suitable for explaining and predicting contraceptive behavior.
Following results of the review, a discussion of more recent contraceptive behavior research which supports enhanced HBM applications is presented. Mothers are traditionally esteemed by Muslim societies, and the Quran itself reflects that importance: Birth Control Although all Muslims are encouraged to have children, contraception is not expressly forbidden in Islam, according to the Muslim Public Affairs Council.
People with pseudocyesis have many, if not all, symptoms of pregnancy -- with the exception of an actual fetus. False pregnancy, clinically termed pseudocyesis, is the belief that you are expecting a baby when you are not really carrying a child. From these articles, 47 were not relevant or were duplicates based upon title and abstract screens and thus excluded.
Abstract Introduction Theory-based research is needed to understand poor contraceptive behavior and related reproductive health sequelae. Treating False Pregnancy Pregnancy is usually an exciting time for expectant parents. Six key articles from the literature, including original works by the theory authors, provided sufficient description and critical commentary on development and testing of the model and its constructs and on implications for health behavior research applications.
Normal and Problem Pregnancies, fifth ed. Knowledge of contraceptive behavior has evolved, warranting more comprehensive use of the HBM for pertinent reproductive health contexts, behaviors and methods.
By Ashley Portero Islam teaches that pregnancy is one of the greatest gift Allah bestows upon women. The purpose of this conceptual, integrated review is to examine the suitability of the Health Belief Model HBM as a framework for explaining and predicting modern contraceptive behavior.
Treating False Pregnancy When a woman believes she is pregnant, especially for a period of several months, it can be very upsetting for her to learn that she is not. Results Overview of the Model The HBM is a cognitive, interpersonal framework that views humans as rational beings who use a multidimensional approach to decision-making regarding whether to perform a health behavior.
Ten articles were included in the review. Urine pregnancy tests will always be negative in these cases, with the exception of rare cancers that produce similar hormones to pregnancy. These conditions may need to be ruled out with tests.
The following key words were searched in combination: Sometimes, however, the doctor will find some of the physical changes that occur during pregnancy, such as an enlarged uterus and softened cervix. We are more aware of the complexities of contraceptive behavior, which may support enhanced applications of the HBM to help identify and predict factors that influence successful contraception in current populations and settings.Contraceptive behavior, viewed through the HBM, is motivated by an individual's: 1) desire to avoid pregnancy and value placed on not becoming pregnant; 2) nonspecific, stable differences in pregnancy motivations and childbearing desires; and 3) perceived ability to control fertility and reduce the threat of pregnancy by using contraception.
Are they just old wives' tales? Hispanic moms-to-be often hear lots of pregnancy advice based on traditional beliefs. The advice has no basis in fact, but may. Pregnancy Beliefs - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
for folklore studies pregnancy, for example not bringing the cot or pram into the house before the baby is InEgypt this ideal is advantageous to women as the general belief is that the mother’s emotional state affects the baby. Most Muslims do not believe abortion is permissible unless the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest, or if the life of the mother is in danger, according to the BBC.
The Health Belief Model is a framework for motivating people to take positive health actions that uses the desire to avoid a negative health consequence as the prime motivation.
For example, HIV is a negative health consequence, and the desire to avoid HIV can be used to motivate sexually active people into practicing safe sex. False pregnancy, clinically termed pseudocyesis, is the belief that you are expecting a baby when you are not really carrying a child.
People with pseudocyesis have many, if not all, symptoms of.Download