Low concentrations of NO are sufficient in most cases to effect the physiological functions of the radical. The nitrite ions diazotize with sulphanilamide acid and couple with naphthyl ethylenediamine, forming pink colour, which was measured at nm [ 24 ].
Natural antioxidants are considered to be safe and bioactive [ 11 ]. Nitric oxide NO is generated from amino acid L-arginine by vascular endothelial cells, phagocytes, and certain cells of the brain.
The potency of the extracts was interpolated from the graph in Figure 1. Thus, herbal medicines are now regarded as important but underutilized tool against the disease [ 21 ]. Nitric oxide NO is generated from amino acid L-arginine by the enzymes in the vascular endothelial cells, certain neuronal cells, and phagocytes [ 3 ].
The values of potency as shown in Table 1 are as follows: These were ethanol, methanol, N-butanol, ammonia, aluminium chloride, potassium acetate, quercetin, gallic acid GAsulphanilamide, naphthalene diamine dihydrochloride, phosphoric acid, sodium nitroprusside SNPKH2PO4 monobasic anhydrousNa2HPO4 dibasic anhydroussodium chloride NaCland potassium chloride KCl.
Hence, these plant extracts can be used as natural sources of antioxidants as they could have great importance as therapeutic agents in preventing or slowing the progress of aging and age associated oxidative stress related degenerative diseases. As antioxidants donate protons to the nitrite radical, the absorbance is decreased.
Flavonoids are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of natural compounds and are probably the most important natural phenolics.
In vitro quenching of NO radical is one of the methods that can be used to determine antioxidant activity [ 3 ].
The summary of the results is shown below in Table 1. Therefore, in the Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity of study, C. Conclusion In conclusion, the results obtained in the present study indicated that ethanol and water extracts of C. Glutathione and vitamin C are well-known antioxidants that are found in plants and provide exogenous antioxidant mechanisms to cells.
Nitric oxide scavenging activity of water extracts from leaves of C. The extracts of medicinal plants and natural products have become a great source of antioxidant and antiageing properties [ 14 ].
They also have potential application in industry as natural antioxidants that could be used as food additives to prevent food deterioration as synthetic antioxidants that are available are associated with a lot of side effects. The decrease in activity of the aqueous extract could be ascribed to polyphenol oxidase, which degrades polyphenols in water extracts but is inactive in methanol and ethanol [ 29 ].
Nitric oxide scavenging activity of the isolated phytoconstituents extracts from leaves of P. It remained at room temperature for 30 mins. The pairing of the free radicals with biomolecules can eventually result in the induction of lipid peroxidation which leads to cancer, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, ageing, and inflammatory diseases [ 24 ].
The maximal scavenging activity was shown by alkaloids, then saponins, and lastly flavonoids. NO is a diffusible free radical that plays many roles as an effectors molecule in diverse biological systems including neuronal messenger, vasodilatation, and antimicrobial and antitumor activities [ 9 ].
The extracted solution was then filtered through Whatman filter paper No. The results showed that the saponins were the most potent followed by flavonoids and lastly alkaloids. The maximum free radical scavenging activity and potency were interpolated from Figure 1 to give results as shown in Table 1.
The plant leaves were dried in a Labcon orbital incubator Labotech Co. The ethanol extracts inhibited the nitrite radical more than the standard gallic acid and the water extracts inhibited the nitrite radical less than the gallic acid. The activity of the ethanol extracts could be attributed to the components such as phenolic compounds that are isolated by each solvent.
A study by Masoko and Eloff showed that the leaves of the Combretaceae family are known for their pharmacological activity and that various solvents extracted antioxidant compounds from the leaves of the plants belonging to members of the Combretaceae family [ 2 ].
Abstract Oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been associated with disease. After discovering that P. The difference could be as a result of the differences in the plant part that was used, seeds as compared to the leaves. In view of that the study has shown that these three plant extracts, both ethanol and water, can be used as sources of antioxidants.
The antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds are mainly due to the redox properties, which allow them to act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, and singlet oxygen quenchers, in addition to their metal chelating potential.
Free radicals or more generally ROS are highly reactive species that are generated by cells during respiration and cell-mediated immune functions [ 1 ]. Prolonged oxidative stress can result in permanent damage to vital body organs, which could eventually lead to chronic disorders such as heart diseases, diabetes, cirrhosis, malaria, neurodegenerative diseases, AIDS, cancer, and premature aging [ 35 ].
The procedure is based on the principle that sodium nitroprusside in aqueous solution at physiological pH spontaneously generates nitric oxide which interacts with oxygen to produce nitrite ions that can be estimated using Griess reagent.Furthermore, CAE exhibited a moderate concentration-dependent inhibition of the DPPH radical.
The multiple antioxidant activity of CAE was evident as it showed significant reducing power, superoxide scavenging ability, nitric oxide-scavenging activity and also ferrous ion chelating potency. peroxide and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays.
The IC50 of the seed and shell oils ( mg/mL and mg/mL respectively) showed that antioxidant activity is higher than that for the standard drugs ( mg/mL and. OBJECTIVE: To investigate inhibitory effect on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release from RAW 7 cell and free radical scavenging activity usingDPPH assay of these ethanolic plant extracts.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: Plant materials were extracted by maceration in 95% ethanol. Anti-inflammatory activity were tested on LPS-induced NO.
A 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark was studied in vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, and for iron chelating capacity, reducing power, and phenolic and flavonoid contents.
Nitric Oxide Radical Scavenging Assay The assay is the nitric oxide radical scavenging assay [ 24 ]. The extracts were prepared from a 10 mg/mL ethanol crude extract. During the study IC50 Value calculated for DPPH and Nitric Oxide radical scavenging activity. Results showed a significant value of antioxidant activity from extracts.
The broad range of activity of the extracts suggests that, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the antioxidant activity.Download