# To demonstrate the working of logic gates using torch bulb battery and switches

The switch circuit creates a continuous metallic path for current to flow in either direction between its input and its output. Alternatively it received 1 as input, and sends 0 as output. Some of these outputs are less familiar.

The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit: This can also be interpreted for a two-input gate as "HIGH output when the inputs are different".

For small-scale logic, designers now use prefabricated logic gates from families of devices such as the TTL series invented by Texas Instruments and the CMOS series invented by RCAand their more recent descendants. Here a series combination of the switch A and B is connected to a battery and a lump L.

Each logic gate is indicated by a symbol and its function is defined by a truth table that shows all the possible input logic level combinations with their respective output logic levels.

With 3 inputs to our logic equation there are possible output combinations. For example, the 5th column is called NAND false only when both inputs are true ; the 8th column is called XOR true when one but not both of the inputs are true. For example, the 2nd output column above corresponds to the logical operation called OR true as long as one or both of the variables are true ; the 12th column is the logical operation AND true only when both of the variables are true.

It is not possible for current to flow between the output and the input of a semiconductor logic gate. The difference between the high and low levels ranges from 0. Each technology has its own requirements for the voltages used to represent the two logic levels, to ensure that the output of any device can reliably drive the input of the next device.

They are used in digital electronics to change one voltage level input voltage into another output voltage according to some logical statement relating them.

If you want to know what happened to the voltage, it is now all dropped across the 5K resistor. Electronic logic gates differ significantly from their relay-and-switch equivalents.

When the base receives a high voltage the transistor switches on, connecting the emitter and collector through an effectively zero resistance path, this means that the collector is connected to ground logic zero.

If neither input is high, a LOW output 0 results. If the input is low i. For examples, see the series of CMOS logic chips. To build a complete logic system, valves or transistors can be used. Any high in will create a high output NOR:AIM To demonstrate the working of logic gates using torch, bulbs, battery and switches.

MATERIALS REQUIRED Torch, bulb, battery, switches, connecting wires, battery eliminator as source of EMF. PROCEDURE Q. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT To demonstrate the working of logic gates using torch bulb, battery and switches. APPARATUS REQUIRED To demonstrate the working of the logic gates we Read More.

Words 5 Pages. logic gate Essay. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT To demonstrate the working of logic gates using torch bulb, battery and switches. APPARATUS REQUIRED To demonstrate the working of the logic gates we require the following apparatus: i) A BATTERY OF 6 V.

ii) TWO SWITCHES (KEYS). Gates and Logic: From switches to Transistors, Logic Gates and Logic Circuits Hakim Weatherspoon CSSpring Computer Science Cornell University. To demonstrate the working of logic gates using torch bulb, battery and switches.

APPARATUS REQUIRED To demonstrate the working of the logic gates we require the following apparatus: i) A BATTERY OF 6 V. In fact, it is important to be able to transform a circuit using a variety of gates into a circuit using fewer gates or a different type of gate.

Representation of data via switching.

To demonstrate the working of logic gates using torch bulb battery and switches
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