In normal sciences, for example, chemistry and physics, variables are obviously established when carrying out research e. By this he meant that psychology does not have paradigms as it contains different levels of explanations and so it cannot be assumed to be a science.
However, to some extent, psychology can establish causality.
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Another argument that can be used to show whether psychology is a science is its use of theory. Secondly, a generalisation is made about the concept being investigated and hypotheses are formed.
For example, if they are looking at stress, they may find indirect variables, such as sweat, but they cannot firmly say that this is a direct variable linked to stressful situations. However, on the whole, the type of experiment used to investigate such variables will establish, to a certain extent, whether psychology is a science.
However, Psychology lacks a paradigm as there is no common goal or perspective as there are five different approaches e. Problems arise when trying to test these hypotheses as to carry out a scientific test the thing being tested needs to be observable and behaviours such as motivation are hypothetical constructs, which cannot be observed.
However, when psychologists investigate areas, they cannot establish such things. Taking all this into account, a science is generally characterised by the fact that it is supposed to our objectiveness and the variables we are investigating can be testable among others peer reviewing etc. A second argument that could be used as either for or against psychology as a science is the process of manipulating variables.
Overall, there are both arguments for and against psychology as a science. This in turn poses complications when regarding psychology as a science as it is more difficult to establish cause and effect.
In the behavioural, biological and cognitive approaches, lab experiments are often used and so they can establish causality in their highly controlled conditions.
Next, deductive reasoning takes place whereby the subject matter is tested and is either verified or falsified. Psychology is full of theory which attempts to explain certain occurrences for example there are several theories for the causation of Schizophrenia, one is that it comes from a biological causation in the same way that a physical illness would another theory is the dopamine hypothesis.
Lab experiments lack ecological validity and can create demand characteristics whereby the participants think they know how the investigator wants them to act, and acts accordingly. This means causality cannot be properly established even when lab experiments are used.
All sciences follow a process when investigating anything scientific.How to Write a Psychology Essay How to Write a Psychology Essay. Mar 11, Types of essays. You may write psychology essay to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.
By continuing to use Studybay you accept our. A selection of free psychology essay questions which have been made available to help aid you in creating your own psychology essay question. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 73, To what extent can modern western family structures be explained by evolutionary psychological theory?
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